Washington, DCIn Earth’s interior, water (H2O) plays an important role in rock physics, but geoscientists rarely treat water in its constituent forms, that is as hydrogen plus oxygen. New work from a team led by the Geophysical Laboratory's Dave Mao has identified that hydrogen can escape from the water under conditions found in Earth’s lower mantle leading to a new paradigm in lower mantle chemistry. Their results were published in Proceeding of the National Academic Science, U.S.A.

High Pressure, Matter at Extreme States

Washington, DC— Although helium is the second most-abundant element (after hydrogen) in the universe, it doesn’t play well with others. It is a member of a family of seven elements called the noble gases, which are called that because of their chemical aloofness—they don’t easily form compounds with other elements. Helium, widely believed to be the most inert element, has no stable compounds under normal conditions. 

High Pressure

Washington, DCPhase transitions surround us—for instance, liquid water changes to ice when frozen and to steam when boiled. Now, researchers at the Geophysical Laboratory have discovered a new phenomenon of so-called metastability in a liquid phase. A metastable liquid is not quite stable. This state is common in supercooled liquids, which are liquids that cool below the freezing point without turning into a solid or a crystal.

High Pressure, Materials

Washington, DC—Germanium may not be a household name like silicon, its group-mate on the periodic table, but it has great potential for use in next-generation electronics and energy technology.

Of particular interest are forms of germanium that can be synthesized in the lab under extreme pressure conditions. However, one of the most-promising forms of germanium for practical applications, called ST12, has only been created in tiny sample sizes—too small to definitively confirm its properties.

High Pressure

The Geophysical Laboratory's weekly seminar series continues with Kate Kiseeva from the University of Oxford.  She will present, "Diamond inclusions from the Earth’s transition zone."

High Pressure, Materials

The Geophysical Laboratory's weekly seminar series continues with Susannah Dorfman of Michigan State University.  She will present, "Deep Earth Redox: Iron and Carbon in the Lower Mantle.”

High Pressure

The Geophysical Laboratory's weekly seminar series continues with our own Yingwei Fei.  He will present, "Recovery of an oxidized majorite inclusion from Earth's deep asthenosphere: A unique window into the redox state and convection of the mantle."

High Pressure

The Geophysical Laboratory's weekly seminar series continues with Amy Jenei from LLNL.  She will present, "Using laser compression to probe solid and plassma equation of state to unprecedented pressure regimes at the National Ignition Facility."

Geochemistry, High Pressure

The Geophysical Laboratory's weekly seminar series continues with Michael Walter from the University of Bristol.  He will present, "The Fate of Deeply Subducted Carbon."

High Pressure, Planetary Science

Washington, DC— Did you know that there are at least 17 crystalline forms of ice, many of them formed under extreme pressures, such as those found in the interiors of frozen planets? New work from a team led by Carnegie’s Timothy Strobel has identified the structure of a new type of ice crystal that resembles the mineral quartz and is stuffed with over five weight percent of energy-rich hydrogen molecules, which is a long-standing Department of Energy goal for hydrogen storage.